Style Sheet

Please read these style guidelines carefully. Putting your manuscript into Kritika style will be much appreciated and will significantly aid the editorial process.

Please double-space all documents, including block quotations. In published form the articles and reviews will have footnotes. In reviews, please supply page references to the book(s) under review as in-text citations and reserve footnotes for references to other works.

General Style

Kritika follows The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., Webster’s Eleventh Collegiate Dictionary for spelling, and strict Library of Congress transliteration of Russian. However, please do not include the small joining arcs over Russian letters rendered as pairs in English (ia, iu, sh, etc.) favored in some LOC transliteration schemes; these will be stripped out during editing.

Specific Style Points


  1. Title. The title of your paper should be short and descriptive of the content.
  2. Your name and affiliation. Your name should follow the title; mailing and e-mail addresses should come at the end of the text.


  1. Names. Use full names (optionally, in the case of Russians, double initials) on first mention in both text and notes of all figures treated in depth or who might otherwise be confused with other persons with the same initials and for the authors/editors of books under review (i.e, listed in the bibliographical information at the front of the review). After the first mention, the last name can be used.

    Example (first mention in text): Ivan Ivanov, I. I. Ivanov
    Example (second mention): Ivanov

    If necessary for identification, as is often the case with aristocrats in the Muscovite or imperial periods, please supply patronymics as well on first mention.  In notes, use double initials for Russians and the form of the name used in the publication for non-Russians.
  2. Transliteration. Russian names should generally be written in transliterated form (e.g., “Gor´kii,” not “Gorky”). Exceptions include emperors and empresses, émigrés (Boris Bakhmeteff), and Russians whose names are foreign in origin (Alexander Herzen) or have a generally accepted form (Boris Yeltsin). When a Russian publication includes non-Russian authors, please give both the transliterated and the Latin form, as follows: Iokhan Khell´bek [Jochen Hellbeck].
  3. Foreign words. Foreign words should be translated whenever possible. Those that must remain in a foreign language should be in italics and transliterated according to the Library of Congress system of translation.
  4. Numbers. Numbers one to ten should be spelled out; those 11 and over must be in numerals. Exceptions: If the number is the first word in the sentence, it should be written out, regardless of size (Eight hundred men went to the army). If one number is in numerals, all other numbers of that type in the same sentence should be in numerals, regardless of size (The military equipment sent to the three camps included 15 tanks, 2 planes, and 100 pieces of artillery—note that three, which is not part of the series, is written out). This also applies to dates (ninth century, 19th century).
  5. Dates. Kritika uses day month year (1 October 2003).

Figures and Tables

Except in rare instances, we do not have the capacity to run color graphics in the print edition of Kritika, although we can use color images in the online and e-book versions. Tables can be included in the file if set up using Word’s Table feature. Figures should be submitted in single files as camera-ready copy; if scanning, please use 300dpi resolution and save as a TIFF file. Do not include images in the text file, but do supply a list of captions and credit lines. In the text itself, mark where you would like the figures to appear (<>), and we will match your placement as closely as possible. It is the author’s responsibility to secure permission to republish any images. Note that images downloaded from the Internet, unless obtained from a professional photography site, are seldom acceptable for print and using them may violate copyright laws. Image files are often large; contact the managing editor ( for information on how best to transmit them and in general with any questions about image transmission and usage.


Please include publishers, including Russian publishers, in the notes!

  1. First reference to books, articles, etc. Always give the complete name, title, place, publisher, date, and page number cited. Later references should be shortened. Please do not use not op. cit. or idem.

    Example (first reference): Karl Marx, The Communist Manifesto, trans. Leon Sally (New York: Workers’ Press, 1987), 89.
    Example (second reference): Marx, Communist Manifesto, 45.
  2. Archival materials. In references to archives, write out the full name of the archive in the language of the country in which it is located at the first reference and thereafter cite it by the standard acronym. In reference to Russian archives give the fond, opis´, delo, and list as f., op., d., and l. (ll.). Please identify fonds and documents on first use, if possible.

    Example (first reference): Rossiiskii gosudarstvennyi sotsial´no-politicheskii arkhiv (RGASPI) f. 1 (Personal papers of V. I. Lenin), op. 1, d. 336, l. 4 (letter to L. D. Trotskii, 1 October 1913).
    Example (second reference): RGASPI f. 1, op. 1, d. 336, l. 4.
    Example (first reference to another source from the same archive): “V Sekretatiat TsK VKP(b). Dokladnaia zapiska o rabote komissii pri Prezidiume TsIK Soiuza SSR po organizatsii i provedeniiu prazdnovaniia 10-letiia Oktiabr´skoi revoliutsii,” no earlier than 7 March 1927 (RGASPI f. 495, op. 99, d. 22, l. 7).

    Please note that, although the Kritika editors recognize that one form of archival citation does not fit all types of sources, the above example gives readers a much greater appreciation of the documentation you are citing than simply listing it as “RGASPI f. 495, op. 99, d. 22, l. 7.”
  3. Dissertations. For references to dissertations, please use the following style:

    Example (first reference): Paul W. Werth, “Subjects for a Modern Empire: Orthodox Mission and Imperial Governance in the Volga–Kama Region, 1825–1917” (PhD diss., University of Michigan, 1997), 22–23. 
    Example (second reference): Werth, “Subjects for a Modern Empire,” 45.
  4. Page numbers. For books and later references to all types of citations, give page numbers after a comma without “p.” or “pp.” In first full citations to journal articles, use a comma to separate volume and issue number, and a colon to set off the page numbers (see examples in “Page number series,” below).

    Example (first reference): Karl Marx, The Communist Manifesto, trans. Leon Sally (New York: Workers’ Press, 1987), 34.
    Example (second reference): Marx, Communist Manifesto, 101–23.
  5. Page number series. Series of page numbers over 100 should read as follows: 333–56, not 333–356. The exception applies to numbers under ten.

    But 104–5, not 104–05.
  6. Names. Please provide double initials (with a space between them) of Russian authors on first citation.

    Example (first reference): I. V. Stalin, Dialectical and Historical Materialism (New York: International Publishers, 1940), 87.
    Example (second reference): Stalin, Dialectical and Historical Materialism, 334–45.
  7. Publishers. As noted above, whenever possible provide publishers of all printed works on first citation of the work.

    Example (first reference): John A. Smith, The Patterns of Russian History (New York: Signet Press, 1999), 87.
    Example (second reference): Smith, Patterns of Russian History, 65–78.
  8. Journal article citation. Whenever possible, provide number (issue) and year of a journal article in addition to the volume.

    Example (first reference): Frederick Cooper, “Conflict and Connection: Rethinking Colonial African History,” American Historical Review 99, 5 (1994): 1527.
    Example (Second reference): Cooper, “Conflict and Connection,” 1545.

    If no issue number is available, please provide month or season instead.
  9. Journal articles without volume numbers. For periodicals that do not regularly provide volume numbers, such as Russian journals, you may put a “no.” preceded by a comma.

    Example (first reference): V. A. Beliaev, “‘Sluzhit´ rodine prikhoditsia kostiami…’ Dnevnik N. V. Ustrialova 1935–1937 gg.,” Istochnik, no. 5–6 (1998): 3–100.
    Example (second reference): Beliaev, “‘Sluzhit´ rodine prikhoditsia kostiami,’” 87.
  10. Edited volumes.
    1. If a collection of essays is cited without reference to a particular item therein, then the proper order of citation should be: Editor(s), ed(s)., Title, etc.
    2. b. If an edition of a primary text is cited, then the order is: Author, Title, ed. Editor(s), etc.

      Example: V. I. Lenin, Lenin on the Jewish Question, ed. Hyman Lumer (New York: International Publishers, 1974).
    3. If an article in a collection is cited, then the order should be: Article Author, “Article Title,” in Collection Title, ed. Editor(s), etc.

      Example: Samuel P. Wells, “An Analysis of the Notion of Historical Recurrence,” in The Meaning of History, ed. John A. Smith and George P. Howard (New York: Academic Press, 2000), 23–45.
  11. “Ibid.” This may be used (and is never italicized), but only when the preceding note contains a single source. Use author’s last name and a short title instead of “op. cit.” Repeat the author’s or editor’s last name rather than using “idem.” If the first name has already been given within a note, it should not be repeated within that note except to avoid confusion. But in a later first reference to a different publication by that author/editor, the first name should be used again.
  12. Newspaper citations. Please include authors’ byline if available, article titles, dates, and, whenever possible, page numbers.
  13. URLs. For online references, include the website address, including the initial http:// or https://. Access dates are not required, but give the author and title of the source if possible to aid in identification. If a link is likely to be ephemeral, give the URL for the home page instead of a specific link that may disappear.
  14. Additional materials. Please do not include tables, images, or even extracted quotations in footnotes. They should be a single paragraph, with any quotations run inside double quotation marks and individual titles separated with semicolons.
  15. Placement. We strongly prefer to have no more than one footnote reference per sentence, placed after the period. There is no need to cite every title in its own note. If necessary, groups of titles can be linked with identifiers: “On the Cossacks, see <title 1>; and <title 2>. On the monarchy, see <title 3>,” and so on. In rare instances, a different arrangement is essential for clarity; in that case, we will make an exception.

Publisher Information

Kritika is published by:
Slavica Publishers
Indiana University 
1430 North Willis Drive
Bloomington, IN 47404-2146 USA

Toll-free 1-877-SLAVICA (752-8422)
Tel. 1-812-856-4186
Fax 1-812-856-4187;